TREES, PLANTS & GRASSES – compiled by Jagat Narain Chaturvedi


S.NO. Common Name Botanical Name Hindi Name Remarks
1 SAL SHOREA ROBUSTA SAL, SARAI sal butter extracted from the seeds is used in chocolates and also as a cooking agent.
2 MALE BAMBOO OR SOLID BAMBOO DENDROCALAMUS STRICTUS BANS used for battens, 'lathis' building purposes ,bows & arrows ,paper pulp, leaves as fodder.
3 BUTTER OR WINE FLOWER TREE MUDHUCA INDICA MAHUA The scented , sweetish,fleshy flowers have an irresistible attraction for bears, deer and fruit and nectar eating birds .
4 RED SILK COTTON TREE BOMBAX CEIBA SEMAR The floss is used for stuffing pillows and is excellent for making surgical dressings.A brittle yellowish or mahogany-coloured gum exudes from incisions in the trunk and finds use in folk medicine as a tonic and aphrodisiac and to treatdiarrhoea and dysentry. A decoction of the roots is supposed to be a stimulant and to help in the treatment of male impotence.
5 YELLOW SILK COTTON  OR TORCHWOOD TREE COCHLOSPERMUM RELIGIOSUM GABDI,PILA SEMAR It is highly resitant to drought and forest fires.the gum from the bark is used in book binding, for cosmetics and for thickening ice cream.
6 INDIAN FRANKINCENSE TREE BOSWELLIA SERRATA SALAI A fragrant ,sticky sap issues from the trunk and is known in the trade as 'indian frankincense' or 'salai guggal' . It is not as strong-smelling as the biblical frankincense which derives from somalian species of boswellia but indian frankincense has been used for centuries in ayurveda to treat osteoarthritis,fibrositis,asthma and as a general health support.
7 INDIAN EBONY OR BIDI LEAF TREE DIOSPYROS MELANOXYLON TENDU The leaves are in great demand for rolling 'beedis' and are collected in government forests.Various medicinal uses are made of its rosted seeds, dried flowers and bark, which are believed to be effective for curing nervous disorders, palpitations, coughs as well as diseases of the skin,bloodand urinarysystem.
8 BANYAN FICUS BENGHALENSIS BADH / BARGAD The great Banyan of kolkata has 1000 trunks. The canopy covers 4 acres , one of the largest in the world.the tree is worshipped by hindus as the male consort of the peepal.
9 PIPAL , BODHI OR BO TREE FICUS RELIGIOSA PIPAL This is the bodhi tree under which lord Buddha sat and received enlightment at Bodh Gaya.It is one of the most sacred trees of India.A tree in Sri lanka is reported to be over 2200 years old.
10 INDIAN FIG TREE FICUS RECEMOSA GULAR Ficus racemosa is a species of plant in the family Moraceae. Popularly known as the cluster fig tree, Indian fig tree or goolar fig.Its leaves, bark, figs,latex and roots- find use in traditional systems of healing. A lotion made from the pulverized bark is believed to be good for treating wounds inflicted by tiger a tiger's claws.
11 WHITE / SPOTTED / JAVA OR GREY FIG FICUS VIRENS PAKHAD Ficus virens is a plant of the genus Ficus found in India, southeast Asia, through Malaysia and into Northern Australia. Its common name is white fig. The figs are greedily eaten by many different birds.
12 PAKHRI FICUS CUPULATA PAKHRI The leaves do not seem to be browsed by goats or cattle.
13 ROCK / CROW FIG FICUS ARNOTTIANA PARAS PEEPAL Peepli is easily mistaken for a peepal because of the shape and crinkly margins of its leaf, though it lacks the elongated 'tail'.
14 INDIAN LAUREL OR CHINESE BANYAN FICUS MICROCARPA GADASI/TILMAN Tree is native in the range from China through Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, India.On school building of bandhavgarh fort.
15 GUM KARAYA STERCULIA URENS KULLU Sterculia is from sterculius, a God of Roman mythology, deried from stercus, dung.The Romans deified objects they disliked.Kullu is the source of gum karaya which is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a laxative and tablet binder, couting agent, obstetrical lubricant and a fixative for dentures.It also has uses in confectionary , ice cream making and the food industry as an emulsifier,stabilizer and thickener.
16 KAMELA OR MONKEY FACE TREE MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS SINDURI mallotus philippensis is a plant in the spurge family. It is known as the kamela tree or  kumkum tree, due to the fruit covering, which produces a red dye.kamela was used to obtain a deep, durable orange or flame-coloured dye for silk, oil from seeds has medicinal properties.
17 EMBLIC MYROBALAN EMBLICA OFFICIANALIS AMLA The fruit is probably the richest known natural source of vitamin C.It is often eaten as a thirst quencher and made into pickles and preserves.Ayurveda relies on aamla fruit to treat an amazing range of complaints, relating especially to gastrointestinal problems. along with other myrobalans, the fruit is constuent of triphala which is used to treat dysentery , biliousness, haemorrhoids and an enlarged liver.
18 BELLIRIC MYROBALAN TERMINALIA BELLARICA BAHEDA Terminalia bellirica, known as "Bahera" or Beleric or bastard myrobalan, is a large deciduous tree common on plains and lower hills in Southeast Asia, Baheda kernels are precribed for treating coughs, eye disease, leprosy, intestinal problems and a host of other complaints.
19 CHEBULIC MYROBALAN TERMINALIA CHEBULA HARRA Fruit yields the most important tanning material of the subcontinent for dyeing leather,wool and cotton.Wood is durable and used in house building.The fruit is highly valued in traditional medicine and is used to treat cardiac disease, coughs, asthama, urinary and gastro-intestinal disorders.
20 ARJUN TERMINALIA ARJUNA KOHWA Kahua trees are highly rated as medicinal 'factories' Their astringent bark in particular is rich in tannins, glycosides, flavonoids and minerals and is used in powdered form in the treatment of cardiovascular ailments including ischaemic heart disease, angina and hypertension. It is also used to treat dysentry, venereal and urogenital complaints, earaches, asthma and disorders of the bile duct.
21 CROCODILE-BARK TREE / INDIAN LAUREL TERMINALIA TOMENTOSA BARSAJA / SAJA Its bark is used for tanning and has some medicinal properties. Tussar silkworms are reared on its leaves, resulting in a fair amount of damageto saaj trees by pollarding in c india.
22 BUTTON OR AXELWOOD TREE ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA DHAWA Anogeissus latifolia is a species of small to medium-sized tree native to the India, Nepal, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka. Its common names are axlewood, bakli, dhau, dhawa, dhawra, or dhaora.
23 DESERT APPLE OR INDIAN JUJUBE ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA BER Ziziphus jujuba, commonly called jujube, red date, Chinese date, Korean date, or Indian date is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family. It is used primarily as a shade tree that also bears fruit.
24 MAKOI ZIZIPHUS OENOPLIA MAKOI Ziziphus oenoplia, commonly known as the jackal jujube, small-fruited jujube or wild jujube, is a flowering plant with a broad distribution through tropical and subtropical Asia and Australasia.
25 GHOTHAR ZIZIPHUS XYLOPYRUS KATBEL Deer and Boar eat the fruits. the paste made from the mixture of tender shoots, pepper, tobacco, lime is applied to heal the wounds caused by tiger and leopard attacks. Bark is used to prepare medicines for gastric problem and to brew alcohol. Fruits edible. Wood preferred for fuel.
26 GOVERNOR'S PLUM FLACOURTIA INDICA KAKAI Flacourtia indica, known commonly as ramontchi, governor’s plum, batoko plum, Madagascar plum and Indian plum, kakai has lots of uses in folk medicine the leaves and root as an antidote to snakebite : the leaf - juice as a febrifuge and remedy for coughs, dysentery and diarrhoea.
27 KADAM / MUNDI MITRAGYNA PARVIFLORA MUNDI Mitragyna parvifolia is a tree species found in Asia. It is native to India. Mitragyna species are used medicinally as well as for their fine timber throughout the areas they grow.
28 GOLDEN APPLE AEGLE MARMELOS BAEL The fruit is broken open by deer, pigs, monkeys and possibly bears which eat the pulp. In this way the seeds get dispersed. The sweet nutritious pulp is drunk as a sherbet.the fruit, leaf and root-bark have proven tonic, antibiotic,digestive and anti-inflammatory properties and are used in the treatment of snakebite , dysentery and other disease of the digestive system, heart, eye, skin and liver.
29 TERMERIC WOOD OR YELLOW TEAK HALDINA CARDIFOLIA HALDU A very good timber for flooring and panelling. Excellent for bobbins and suitable for battery separators.In ayurveda - the bark and roots are used in various ways to treat inflammations, ulcers, wounds and infections of the gastric tract.
30 TUMMY WOOD / WILD GUAVA/SLOW MATCH TREE CAREA ARBOREA KUMBHI Careya arborea is a species of tree in the Lecythidaceae family, native to the Indian Subcontinent, Afghanistan, and Indochina. It is known as Kumbhi in Hindi, and Slow Match Tree in English.
31 INDIA BLACKBERRY SYZGIUM CUMINII JAMUN Jamun or Black plum is an important summer fruit, associated with many health and medicinal benefits. The black plum is known to relieve stomach pain, carminative, anti-scorbutic and diuretic. Black Plum vinegar is good to reduce enlargement of spleen, diarrhoea, and those have urine retention.
32 KARHI, SAFED SIRIS ALBIZZIA  PROCERA KARHI ALBIZIA PROCERA - a decoction of the bark is used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism and stomach aches and is mixed with salt as a medicine given to buffaloes.there is recent interest in the anti-cancer properties of karhi leaves and bark.
33 KOKKO OR BLACK SIRIS ALBIZZIA  LEBBECK BANSA Albizia is named after albizzi, an italian naturalist; lebbeck, after a place in egypt where it was much planted as an avenue tree.


Bandhavgarh National Park , Tour Booking Form